alexa Targeted antigen delivery and activation of dendritic cells in vivo: steps towards cost effective vaccines.
Immunology

Immunology

Immunotherapy: Open Access

Author(s): Tacken PJ, Figdor CG

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Abstract During the past decade, the immunotherapeutic potential of ex vivo generated professional antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) has been explored in the clinic. Albeit safe, clinical results have thus far been limited. A major disadvantage of current cell-based dendritic cell (DC) therapies, preventing universal implementation of this form of immunotherapy, is the requirement that vaccines need to be tailor made for each individual. Targeted delivery of antigens to DC surface receptors in vivo would circumvent this laborious and expensive ex vivo culturing steps involved with these cell-based therapies. In addition, the opportunity to target natural and often rare DC subsets in vivo might have advantages over loading more artificial ex vivo cultured DCs. Preclinical studies show targeting antigens to DCs effectively induces humoral responses, while cellular responses are induced provided a DC maturation or activation stimulus is co-administered. Here, we discuss strategies to target antigens to distinct DC subsets and to simultaneously employ adjuvants to activate these cells to induce immunity. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This article was published in Semin Immunol and referenced in Immunotherapy: Open Access

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