Author(s): Vessella RL, Corey E
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Abstract Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men within the western world and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Even if the cancer is considered localized to the prostate, there is a 15\% to 20\% incidence of subsequent metastatic disease. Prostate cancer has a very high proclivity for metastasizing to bone, with approximately 90\% of men with advanced disease having skeletal lesions. The prostate cancer metastases are characteristically osteoblastic, with extensive new bone deposition, unlike other tumors that metastasize to bone and cause an osteolytic response reflective of bone degradation. There are a considerable number of studies relating to inhibition of the osteoblastic response, including interference with endothelin-1, bone morphogenetic proteins, and Wnt signaling pathways. Within the past few years, several studies showed that increased osteolytic activity also occurs in the background of the prostate cancer skeletal metastases. Because growth factors are being released from the bone matrix during degradation, it suggests that inhibition of osteolysis might be effective in slowing tumor growth. Several strategies are being developed and applied to affect directly the osteolytic events, including use of bisphosphonates and targeting the critical biological regulators of osteoclastogenesis, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand. This review focuses on several of the clinical and preclinical strategies to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in bone and to alleviate the multitude of associated skeletal-related events.
This article was published in Clin Cancer Res
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology