Author(s): Backer MV, Backer JM, Chinnaiyan P
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Abstract Rapid growth of tumor cells coupled with inadequate vascularization leads to shortage of oxygen and nutrients. The unfolded protein response (UPR), a defense cellular mechanism activated during such stress conditions, is a complex process that includes upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Due to its central role in UPR, GRP78 is overexpressed in many cancers; it is implicated in cancer cell survival through supporting of drug- and radioresistance as well as metastatic dissemination, and is generally associated with poor outcome. This is the reason why selective destruction of GRP78 could become a novel anticancer strategy. GRP78 is the only known substrate of the proteolytic A subunit (SubA) of a bacterial AB(5) toxin, and the selective SubA-induced cleavage of GRP78 leads to massive cell death. Targeted delivery of SubA into cancer cells via specific receptor-mediated endocytosis could be a suitable strategy for assaulting tumor cells. We fused SubA to epidermal growth factor (EGF), whose receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells, and demonstrated that the resulting EGF-SubA immunotoxin is an effective killer of EGFR-positive tumor cells. Furthermore, because of its unique mechanism of action, EGF-SubA synergizes with UPR-inducing drugs, which opens a possibility for the development of mechanism-based combination regimens for effective anticancer therapy. In this chapter, we provide experimental protocols for the assessment of the effects of EGF-SubA on EGFR-positive cancer cells, either alone or in combination with UPR-inducing drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Methods Enzymol
and referenced in Single Cell Biology