Author(s): Tappaz ML
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Abstract Many biological effects of taurine rely upon its cellular concentration, which is primarily controlled by taurine biosynthetic enzymes cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) and taurine transporter (TauT). The cloning of CDO, CSD and TauT in various species provided first-hand information on these proteins, as well as molecular tools to investigate their regulations. CDO upregulation in hepatocytes in response to high sulfur amino acids appears clearly as the most spectacular among the regulations of the biosynthetic enzymes. Downregulation of TauT activity by activation of PKC appears particularly well documented. A unique serine residue could be identified as a phosphorylation site that leads to an inactive form of TauT. The previously revealed downregulation of TauT expression by taurine and hypertonicity-induced upregulation of TauT expression were shown to result from a modified transcription rate of TauT gene, but the precise molecular mechanisms are not yet formally established. Other regulations of taurine transporter expression were more recently reported, which involve glucose, tumor suppressor protein p53, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide. This review reports the experimental models and data that support these various regulations but also points out the aspects that remain poorly understood or unknown concerning their molecular basis and physiological significance.
This article was published in Neurochem Res
and referenced in Journal of Membrane Science & Technology