Author(s): Alegre ML, Frauwirth KA, Thompson CB
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Abstract Activation of T lymphocytes is thought to require at least two signals, one delivered by the T-cell receptor complex after antigen recognition, and one provided on engagement of co-stimulatory receptors, such as CD28. Recent studies are providing clues as to the specific signalling roles of co-stimulatory receptors. Furthermore, superimposition of inhibitory signals, such as those delivered by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), leads to a complex network of positive and negative co-stimulatory signals, the integration of which modulates immune responses.
This article was published in Nat Rev Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology