Author(s): Randhawa P
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Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Burgeoning literature on antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) has led to a perception that T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) is no longer a significant problem. This premise needs to be carefully appraised. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of the literature indicates that TCMR remains an independent-risk factor for graft loss. Importantly, it can occur as a sensitizing event that triggers ABMR, and adversely affects its outcome. Moreover, T cells are regularly present in lesions used to diagnose ABMR, and these lesions can also develop in the absence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Conversely, patients with DSA are at risk for mixed ABMR-TCMR, which is quite common in many studies, and may require a combined anti-T-cell and anti-B-cell strategy for the best outcome. SUMMARY: T-cell-based clinical monitoring and therapy is still relevant for prophylaxis of both cellular and humoral rejection, treatment of steroid refractory TCMR, which occurs in up to 20\% of patients, and optimization of clinical outcome in mixed TCMR-ABMR, which is more frequently encountered than generally appreciated, and still associated with unacceptably high rates of graft loss.
This article was published in Curr Opin Organ Transplant
and referenced in Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research