Author(s): Elovainio M, Kivimki M, Puttonen S, Heponiemi T, Pulkki L,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: This study examined whether temperament dimensions, as indicated by Cloninger's psychobiological model [Cloninger, C.R., Svrakic, D.M., Przybeck, T.R., 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50, 975-990.], predicted depressive symptoms across a 4-year follow-up. METHODS: Nine hundred ninety-three women and 583 men from the on-going population-based study of "Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns" completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) [Cloninger, C.R., Svrakic, D.M., Przybeck, T.R., 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50, 975-990.], a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory [Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., 1987. Manual for the Revised Beck Depression Inventory. Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX; Katainen, S., Raikkonen, K., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., 1999. Adolescent temperament, perceived social support and depressive tendencies as predictors of depressive tendencies in young adulthood. Eur. J. Pers. 13, 183-207] and the Perceived Social Support Scale-R [Blumenthal, J.A., Burg, M.M., Barefoot, J., Williams, R.B., Haney, T., Zimet, G., 1987. Social support, type A behavior, and coronary artery disease. Psychosom. Med. 49, 331-340]. RESULTS: Results of hierarchical linear regression models showed that the temperament subscales impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fatigability, sentimentality, and persistence increased the risk of depressive symptoms independently of a wide variety of known risk factors for depression. The association between fatigability and depressive symptoms was stronger for participants with low social support than for those reporting high social support. LIMITATIONS: The sample was restricted to men and women aged 20-35 at baseline and no clinically significant cut-point for depression was defined. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strengthen the view that depressive symptoms are independently influenced by temperamental dispositions.
This article was published in J Affect Disord
and referenced in Clinical and Experimental Psychology