Author(s): Arora VK, Singh N, Bhatia A, Rashmi, Radhakrishnan G
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative cytologic features on testicular fine needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of azoospermia and oligospermia and to correlate cytologic and histologic diagnoses.
STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective study, 50 infertile males selected from the infertility clinic of Guru Tegh Bahadur Hospital were studied. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears from both testes of 27 azoospermic and 23 oligospermic patients (sperm count < 10 million per milliliter) were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and Papanicolaou stain. Differential counting of 500 spermatogenic cells was done, and the number of Sertoli cells per 500 germ cells was determined for calculating the spermatic index and Sertoli cell index, respectively. FNAC and testicular biopsy were performed under local anesthesia as a minor surgical procedure.
RESULTS: Six groups were identified on FNAC smears from azoospermic patients: I. normal spermatogenesis (8), II. hypospermatogenesis (2), III. maturation arrest (2), IV. Sertoli cells only (6), V. atrophic pattern (7), and VI. Leydig cell predominance (2). In oligospermic patients two groups were identified: I. those with normal spermatogenesis (4), and II. those with subnormal spermatogenesis (19). Correlation with histopathologic examination was seen in 81.5\% azoospermic and 65.2\% oligospermic patients.
CONCLUSION: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of testicular FNAC provides useful information on both azoospermic and oligospermic patients. FNAC performed under local anesthesia is an acceptable outpatient procedure that consistently yields sufficient diagnostic material in all patients.