Author(s): Yoshikawa Y, Ueda E, Kojima Y, Sakurai H
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Abstract Zinc (Zn), an essential trace element, and its complexes have recently been known to exhibit insulinomimetic activities. However, the action mechanism of Zn(II) has yet been obscure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the action mechanism of the Zn(II) complexes. We found first that Zn given in the chemical forms such as Zn(maltolate)2 and Zn(threoninate)2 complexes is highly uptaken in the isolated rat adipocytes compared with that of Zn(picolinate)2. Then, the action mechanism for the insulinomimetic activities was examined in terms of free fatty acid release from the adipocytes. Four Zn(II) compounds, ZnSO4, Zn(picolinate)2, Zn(maltolate)2, and Zn(threoninate)2, inhibited the free fatty acid release from the adipocytes treated with epinephrine (adrenaline). By using several inhibitors for fatty acids and glucose metabolisms in the adipocytes, the following results were obtained. (1) Zn(picolinic acid)2 complex acts on the insulin receptor and PI3-k, which relate to the glucose uptake, as indicated by the experiments using hydroxy-2-naphthalenylmethyl phosphonic acid tris acetoxy methyl ester (HNMPA-(AM)3) and wortmannin, respectively. (2) ZnSO4, and Zn(maltolate)2 and Zn(threoninate)2 complexes affect a glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), which is involved in the glucose uptake as indicated by the results using cytochalasin B. (3) Four Zn(II) compounds affect the activation of the phosphodiesterase as indicated by the experiments using cilostamide. These results indicate that the Zn(II) compounds promote the glucose uptake into the adipocytes by affecting at least three sites in the adipocytes, which in turn normalize the blood glucose levels in the experimental diabetic animals. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
This article was published in Life Sci
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism