Author(s): Lu B, Moser A, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR
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Abstract The acute phase response is characterized by elevations in serum triglyceride levels due to both an increase in hepatic VLDL production and a delay in the clearance of triglyceride rich lipoproteins secondary to a decrease in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Recently there has been a marked increase in our understanding of factors that regulate LPL activity. GPIHBP1 facilitates the interaction of LPL and lipoproteins thereby allowing lipolysis to occur. Angiopoietin like proteins (ANGPTL) 3 and 4 inhibit LPL activity. In the present study, treatment of mice with LPS, an activator of TLR4 and a model of Gram-negative infections, did not alter the expression of GPIHBP1 in heart or adipose tissue. However, LPS decreased the expression of ANGPTL3 in liver and increased the expression of ANGPTL4 in heart, muscle, and adipose tissue. Serum ANGPTL4 protein levels were markedly increased at 8 and 16h following LPS treatment. Administration of zymosan, an activator of TLR2 and a model of fungal infections, also increased serum ANGPTL4 protein and mRNA levels in liver, heart, muscle, and adipose tissue. Finally, treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with LPS or cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and interferon gamma) stimulated ANGPTL4 expression. These studies demonstrate that ANGPTL4 is a positive acute phase protein and the increase in ANGPTL4 could contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia that characteristically occurs during the acute phase response by inhibiting LPL activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This article was published in Biochem Biophys Res Commun
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology