Author(s): Shepard JD, Bossert JM, Liu SY, Shaham Y
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Brain noradrenaline is involved in footshock stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in a rat relapse model. We studied whether yohimbine, an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that increases noradrenaline release and induces anxiety-like responses in human and nonhuman subjects, would reinstate methamphetamine seeking in rats. METHODS: In experiment 1, the effect of yohimbine (1.25-2.5 mg/kg) on reinstatement was compared with that of intermittent footshock (5 min;.2-.6 mA) in rats that were trained to lever press for intravenous methamphetamine (9-11 days) and subsequently underwent 7 days of extinction training. In experiment 2, the effect of yohimbine on reinstatement of drug seeking was determined during early (1 day) and late (21 or 51 days) withdrawal periods. On the test days, rats were first given 3-hour extinction sessions and were then tested for reinstatement induced by yohimbine. RESULTS: In experiment 1, both yohimbine and footshock stress reinstated methamphetamine seeking after extinction. In experiment 2, extinction responding was higher after 21 or 51 withdrawal days than after 1 withdrawal day. In contrast, no significant time-dependent changes in yohimbine-induced reinstatement were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that yohimbine is a potent stimulus for reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in a rat relapse model.
This article was published in Biol Psychiatry
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy