Author(s): Verrax J, Cadrobbi J, Delvaux M, Jamison JM, Gilloteaux J,
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Abstract Deficiency of alkaline and acid DNase is a hallmark in all non-necrotic cancer cells in animals and humans. These enzymes are reactivated at early stages of cancer cell death by vitamin C (acid DNase) and vitamin K(3) (alkaline DNase). Moreover, the coadministration of these vitamins (in a ratio of 100:1, for C and K(3), respectively) produced selective cancer cell death. Detailed morphological studies indicated that cell death is produced mainly by autoschizis, a new type of cancer cell death. Several mechanisms are involved in such a cell death induced by CK(3), they included: formation of H(2)O(2) during vitamins redox cycling, oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, no caspase-3 activation, and cell membrane injury with progressive loss of organelle-free cytoplasm. Changes in the phosphorylation level of some critical proteins leading to inactivation of NF-kappaB appear as main intracellular signal transduction pathways. The increase knowledge in the mechanisms underlying cancer cells death by CK(3) may ameliorate the techniques of their in vivo administration. The aim is to prepare the introduction of the association of vitamins C and K(3) into human clinics as a new, non-toxic adjuvant cancer therapy.
This article was published in Eur J Med Chem
and referenced in Vitamins & Minerals
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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