Author(s): Ferraz ER, Grando MD, Oliveira DP, Ferraz ER, Grando MD, Oliveira DP
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Abstract Azo dyes constitute the largest group of colorants used in industry and can pass through municipal waste water plants nearly unchanged due to their resistance to aerobic treatment, which potentially exposes humans and local biota to adverse effects. Unfortunately, little is known about their environmental fate. Under anaerobic conditions, some azo dyes are cleaved by microorganisms forming potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines. In the present study, the azo dye Disperse Orange 1, widely used in textile dyeing, was tested using the comet, Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity, cell viability, Daphnia similis and Microtox(®) assays. The human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was used in the comet assay and for cell viability. In the mutagenicity assay, Salmonella typhimurium strains with different levels of nitroreductase and o-acetyltransferase were used. The dye showed genotoxic effects with respect to HepG2 cells at concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0μg/mL. In the mutagenicity assay, greater responses were obtained with the strains TA98 and YG1041, suggesting that this compound mainly induces frameshift mutations. Moreover, the mutagenicity was greatly enhanced with the strains overproducing nitroreductase and o-acetyltransferase, showing the importance of these enzymes in the mutagenicity of this dye. In addition, the compound induced apoptosis after 72h in contact with the HepG2 cells. No toxic effects were observed for either D. similis or Vibrio fischeri. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in J Hazard Mater
and referenced in Journal of Developing Drugs