Author(s): Channon GM, Brotherton BJ
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Abstract This paper reports fifteen cases of ball and socket articulation at the ankle followed up for an average of twelve years. All patients showed inequality of leg length. Ten patients showed coalitions of the bones of the hindfoot and nine patients had a reduction in the number of bony elements of the forefoot. Other associated anomalies are described. The abnormality seems to be part of a congenital short-limb malformation, perhaps modified by adaptive change associated with rigidity of the hindfoot. Surgical intervention was not required in any patient in the series.
This article was published in J Bone Joint Surg Br
and referenced in Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics