alexa The basal forebrain cholinergic system in aging and dementia. Rescuing cholinergic neurons from neurotoxic amyloid-β42 with memantine.
Neurology

Neurology

Brain Disorders & Therapy

Author(s): Nyakas C, Granic I, Halmy LG, Banerjee P, Luiten PG

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The dysfunction and loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and their cortical projections are among the earliest pathological events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The evidence pointing to cholinergic impairments come from studies that report a decline in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE), acetylcholine (ACh) release and the levels of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and loss of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in the AD brain. Alzheimer's disease pathology is characterized by an extensive loss of synapses and neuritic branchings which are the dominant scenario as compared to the loss of the neuronal cell bodies themselves. The appearance of cholinergic neuritic dystrophy, i.e. aberrant fibers and fiber swelling are more and more pronounced during brain aging and widely common in AD. When taking amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as the ultimate causal factor of Alzheimer's disease the role of Aβ in cholinergic dysfunction should be considered. In that respect it has been stated that ACh release and synthesis are depressed, axonal transport is inhibited, and that ACh degradation is affected in the presence of Aβ peptides. β-Amyloid peptide 1-42, the principal constituent of the neuritic plaques seen in AD patients, is known to trigger excess amount of glutamate in the synaptic cleft by inhibiting the astroglial glutamate transporter and to increase the intracellular Ca(2+) level. Based on the glutamatergic overexcitation theory of AD progression, the function of NMDA receptors and treatment with NMDA antagonists underlie some recent therapeutic applications. Memantine, a moderate affinity uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist interacts with its target only during states of pathological activation but does not interfere with the physiological receptor functions. In this study the neuroprotective effect of memantine on the forebrain cholinergic neurons against Aβ42 oligomers-induced toxicity was studied in an in vivo rat dementia model. We found that memantine rescued the neocortical cholinergic fibers originating from the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, attenuated microglial activation around the intracerebral lesion sides, and improved attention and memory of Aβ42-injected rats exhibiting impaired learning and loss of cholinergic innervation of neocortex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This article was published in Behav Brain Res and referenced in Brain Disorders & Therapy

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords