Author(s): Johnson JE, Giorgione J, Newton AC
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Abstract Protein kinase C is specifically activated by binding two membrane lipids: the second messenger, diacylglycerol, and the amino phospholipid, phosphatidylserine. This binding provides the energy to release an autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate from the active site. Interaction with these lipids recruits the enzyme to the membrane by engaging two membrane-targeting modules: the C1 domain (present as a tandem repeat in most protein kinase Cs) and the C2 domain. Here we dissect the contribution of each domain in recruiting protein kinase C betaII to membranes. Binding analyses of recombinant domains reveal that the C2 domain binds anionic lipids in a Ca(2+)-dependent, but diacylglycerol-independent, manner, with little selectivity for phospholipid headgroup beyond the requirement for negative charge. The C1B domain binds membranes in a diacylglycerol/phorbol ester-dependent, but Ca(2+)-independent manner. Like the C2 domain, the C1B domain preferentially binds anionic lipids. However, in striking contrast to the C2 domain, the C1B domain binds phosphatidylserine with an order of magnitude higher affinity than other anionic lipids. This preference for phosphatidylserine is, like that of the full-length protein, stereoselective for sn-1, 2-phosphatidyl-L-serine. Quantitative analysis of binding constants of individual domains and that of full-length protein reveals that the full-length protein binds membranes with lower affinity than expected based on the binding affinity of isolated domains. In addition to entropic and steric considerations, the difference in binding energy may reflect the energy required to expel the pseudosubstrate from the substrate binding cavity. This study establishes that each module is an independent membrane-targeting module with each, independently of the other, containing determinants for membrane recognition. The presence of each of these modules, separately, in a number of other signaling proteins epitomizes the use of these modules as discreet membrane targets.
This article was published in Biochemistry
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology