Author(s): Spentzouris G, Zandian A, Cesmebasi A, Kinsella CR, Muhleman M,
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Abstract Anomalies in the course and drainage of the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) may complicate normal functioning, correct diagnosis, and therapeutic interventions within the abdomen. Development of the IVC occurs during the 4th to 8th week of gestation, and due to its developmental complexity, there are many opportunities for malformations to occur. Although most IVC anomalies are clinically silent and are usually discovered incidentally on abdominal imaging, aberrations may be responsible for formation of thrombosis, back pain, and anomalous circulation of blood to the heart. In this review, we will discuss the most common variations and abnormalities of the IVC, which include the posterior cardinal veins, the subcardinal veins, the supracardinal veins, persistent left IVC, IVC duplication, situs inversus, left retroaortic renal vein, left circumaortic renal collar, scimitar syndrome, and IVC agenesis. For each abnormality outlined above, we aim to discuss relevant embryology and potential clinical significance with regards to presentation, diagnosis, and treatment as is important for radiologists, surgeons, and clinicians in current clinical practice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This article was published in Clin Anat
and referenced in Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy