Author(s): Berzofsky JA, Terabe M
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Abstract NKT cells are true T cells that serve as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune system, acting as first responders. They recognize lipid antigens rather than peptides, and respond to these when presented by a non-classical class I MHC molecule, CD1d. NKT cells can play a pathogenic role in asthma or a protective role against several autoimmune diseases, in part based on their cytokine profile. In cancer, they can play opposite roles, contributing to anti-tumor immunity or suppressing it. The protective NKT cells were found to be primarily type I NKT cells defined by use of a semi-invariant T cell receptor involving Valpha14Jalpha18 in mice and Valpha24Jalpha18 in humans and responding to alpha-galactosylceramide, and the most protective were among the minority that are CD4-. The suppressive NKT cells were found to be CD4+ and to be primarily type II NKT cells, that have diverse T-cell receptors and respond to other lipids. Further, the type I and type II NKT cells were found to counter-regulate each other, forming a new immunoregulatory axis. This axis may have broad implications beyond cancer, as NKT cells play a role in steering other adaptive immune responses. The balance along this axis could affect immunity to tumors and infectious diseases and responses to vaccines.
This article was published in Curr Mol Med
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology