Author(s): Deluca HF, Deluca HF
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Abstract The goal of synthetic chemists in the vitamin D field has been to produce an analog(s) of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) that is selective for a specific function. The accumulation of structure/function information has led to the synthesis of two analogs that are both selective and more potent than 1,25-(OH)2D3, that is, 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (2MD) and 2α-methyl-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (2AMD). In vivo, the efficacy of 2MD is approximately equal to that of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in intestinal calcium transport but is 30- to 100-fold more active in bone mobilization. In vitro, 2MD supports new bone synthesis at 10(-12) M, whereas 1,25-(OH)2D3 is active at 10(-8) M. Similarly, 2MD is two orders of magnitude more potent than 1,25-(OH)2D3 in stimulating osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption. 2MD also markedly increases bone mass and bone strength of ovariectomized female rats. In postmenopausal women, 2MD significantly increases markers of both bone formation and resorption but has minimal effect on bone mass. Thus, in patients who are undergoing primarily remodeling rather than modeling (rat), the increased resorption largely counteracts the increased bone formation. So far, 2MD has not been tested for reduction of fractures in this population. However, its selectivity includes the parathyroid gland. Thus in the 5/6-nephrectomy model of chronic renal failure, 2MD is much more potent than currently available vitamin D compounds used to suppress secondary hyperparathyroidism of renal failure without causing hypercalcemia. It is currently in phase 2B trials in patients on dialysis.
This article was published in Bonekey Rep
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology