Author(s): Preisler G
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Abstract Severe hearing impairment is seldom detected in children before the age of 6-12 months as parent-infant interaction is similar to that of a normal parent-child interaction. This is probably due to an innate capacity of infants to take information in one sensory modality and translate it into another, called amodal perception. The roots of language are traced to early proto-conversations, as well as to early pretend play. Relationships are viewed as the context in which socialisation takes place, basic competences emerge, regulations of emotions develop and communication skills are acquired. If habilitation after diagnosis of a severe hearing impairment primarily is focused on an oral-aural approach, natural patterns of communication between parent and child will gradually disappear, which will have negative implications on the development of these children. If, instead, they are allowed to develop those means of communication that are easy for them to produce and to perceive, positive consequences have been registered on the development of communication and language, as well as on their socio-emotional and cognitive development. When these children have been given opportunities to become bilingual with a signed and a written and/or spoken language, it has enabled them to attend higher education, to have a qualified job and thereby a good life in the future.
This article was published in Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
and referenced in Journal of Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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- Chuanling Zhang
Genetic Code Expansion in Natural Propagation for Site-Specific Engineering and Tracking of Single Adeno-Associated Viruses
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