Author(s): Sand PK, Sand RI
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Abstract Sixty-five percent of multiple sclerosis patients have moderate to severe urinary symptoms and up to 14\% initially present with urinary symptomatology. Urinary retention, neurogenic detrusor overactivity, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, all increase the risk for urinary tract infections in patients with multiple sclerosis, and these infections may exacerbate their immune response, leading to symptom progression. Fewer than half of the patients with urinary symptoms have seen a specialist and only half have been treated for their neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Several treatments including pelvic floor muscle therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, anticholinergics, desmopressin, sacral nerve neuromodulation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, cannabinoids, and intravesical therapy with vanniloids, as well as botulinum toxin, have all been shown to be effective in treating urinary symptoms in those with multiple sclerosis. Clean intermittent catheterization is invaluable in patients with persistent urinary retention to avoid infection and upper tract dysfunction. Indwelling transurethral catheterization should be avoided because of the high risk of infection. Identification and successful treatment of these urinary conditions will improve the health and quality of life for these men and women.
This article was published in Dis Mon
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy