Author(s): Dreisbach AW, Lertora JJ
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF) has been shown to significantly reduce the nonrenal clearance and alter bioavailability of drugs predominantly metabolized by the liver and intestine. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to review all significant animal and clinical studies dealing with the effect of CRF on drug metabolism and transport. METHODS: A search of the National Library of Medicine PubMed was done with terms such as chronic renal failure, cytochrome P450 [CYP], liver metabolism, efflux drug transport and uptake transport, including relevant articles back to 1969. RESULTS: Animal studies in CRF have shown a significant downregulation (40-85\%) of hepatic and intestinal CYP metabolism. High levels of parathyroid hormone, cytokines and uremic toxins have been shown to reduce CYP activity. Phase II reactions and drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptide are also affected. CONCLUSION: CRF alters intestinal, renal and hepatic drug metabolism and transport producing a clinically significant impact on drug disposition and increasing the risk for adverse drug reactions.
This article was published in Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
and referenced in Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy