Author(s): Lowrey CH, Lyness SJ, Soeldner JS
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Abstract HbA1c is the most prevalent of the minor human hemoglobins. It is formed by the nonenzymatic addition of glucose to the alpha-amino group of the beta chain by an initial condensation reaction and a subsequent intermolecular Amadori rearrangement. We have developed a method of analysis which utilizes high performance liquid chromatography to follow the formation of HbA1c and greatly simplifies the determination of the kinetic parameters associated with this reaction. This has allowed us to study the effects of several Hb ligands, including the hydrogen ion, on the kinetics of this glycosylation reaction. Both the initial condensation reaction and the subsequent rearrangement are shown to exhibit acid catalysis, but the rate of the condensation step is limited by the extent of protonation of the alpha-amino group. The variation in kinetic parameters as a function of hydrogen ion concentration has allowed us to determine the probable reaction mechanism of HbA1c formation by comparison to previously reported model systems of Schiff base formation and Amadori rearrangement. The formation of pre-HbA1c from deoxy-Hb shows an increased forward rate when compared to oxy-Hb. The presence of physiologic concentrations of CO2 causes a proportional decrease in both k1 and k-1. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate causes a significant increase in the keq of the formation reaction. The effects of CO and the substitution of L-glucose for D-glucose are not significant.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Metabolic Syndrome