alexa The effect of high glucose and PPAR-gamma agonists on PPAR-gamma expression and function in HK-2 cells.
Diabetes & Endocrinology

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

Author(s): Panchapakesan U, Pollock CA, Chen XM

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Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate cell growth, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. PPAR-gamma in the human kidney has been described. However, the role of PPAR-gamma in proximal tubular cells with respect to cell growth and inflammation in diabetic nephropathy is largely unknown. We evaluated the effect of high (30 mM) D-glucose, thiazolidinedione pioglitazone (10 microM), and the selective PPAR-gamma agonist L-805645 (8 microM) on PPAR-gamma expression, growth, and inflammatory parameters in the proximal tubular model of HK-2 cells. PPAR-gamma was present in HK-2 cells and upregulated with 30 mM D-glucose to 177 +/- 31.2\% of control (P < 0.05). PPAR-gamma activation was induced by pioglitazone to a similar level to that observed by exposure to high glucose but maximally induced by the selective agonist L-805645. However, L-805645 reduced cell viability in both 5 and 30 mM d-glucose to 73.8 +/- 3.1 and 77.6 +/- 1.4\% of control (both P < 0.0001). In parallel, thymidine incorporation was reduced with L-805645 in both 5 and 30 mM D-glucose to 33.3 +/- 3.4 and 37.9 +/- 2.2\%, respectively (both P < 0.0001). Flow cytometry demonstrated increased apoptosis and G(1) phase arrest in association with an increase in p21(cip1/waf1) in cells exposed to L-805645. Exposure to 30 mM D-glucose did not significantly change AP-1 promoter activity (89.0 +/- 5.5\% of control); however, the addition of L-805645 significantly reduced it to 62.2 +/- 2.7\% of control (P < 0.0001). Thirty nanomolar D-glucose induced transforming growth factor-beta(1) to 137.7 +/- 16.9\% of control (P < 0.05), and L-805645 was able to suppress this to 68.7 +/- 5.7\% of control (P < 0.01 vs. d-glucose). Exposure to 30 mM D-glucose reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels to 78.6 +/- 7.1\% (P < 0.05) of control, with the reduction more marked in the presence of either pioglitazone (P < 0.01) or L-805645 (P < 0.01). In summary, high glucose upregulates PPAR-gamma and when significantly induced demonstrates anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. This article was published in Am J Physiol Renal Physiol and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

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