Author(s): Gunsolley JC, Pandey JP, Quinn SM, Tew J, Schenkein HA
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Abstract In previous studies we have demonstrated that serum IgG subclass concentrations are influenced by both race and periodontal disease diagnosis. Furthermore, we have shown that smoking habits modify the concentrations of some IgG subclasses in specific racial and diagnostic groups. In view of a large amount of data showing strong associations between immunoglobulin allotypes and IgG subclass concentrations we have investigated the effects of race, smoking and IgG allotype on IgG subclass concentration in a population of subjects with or without various forms of periodontitis. The results indicated that there are complex relationships between these factors in their effects on individual IgG subclass levels, and that effects unique to black or white subject groups, or to specific periodontal diagnostic groups and racial subgroups, were evident. In blacks with chronic adult periodontitis IgG1 was lower in smokers, while in generalized early-onset periodontitis patients IgG2 was lower in smokers. IgG4 was independently affected by gender (males higher), smoking (smokers lower) and GM23 (GM23 positive subjects higher), in black subjects only. In white subjects, complex relationships between smoking and allotypic markers were noted but no influence of periodontal diagnosis was found. White GM23 negative subjects who smoked had lower levels of IgG1 than GM23 positive subjects. White GM2 negative subjects who smoked had lower levels of IgG2, than did those who did not smoke. In contrast, smoking had no effect on IgG2 levels in GM2 positive subjects. Thus, in addition to immunoglobulin allotype, smoking is associated with IgG subclass concentrations; furthermore, in black subjects, periodontal diagnosis, gender and smoking all influence IgG subclass concentrations. These results demonstrate that genetic and environmental factors can interact to influence levels of individual subclasses.
This article was published in J Periodontal Res
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine