Author(s): AlonsoVillaverde V, Voinesco F, Viret O, Spring JL, Gindro K
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Abstract Leaves of different Vitis vinifera L. cultivars, susceptible or resistant to downy mildew, Chasselas, Solaris, IRAC 2091 (cvs. Gamaret x Bronner) and Muscadinia rotundifolia were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola. Samples were then examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, by light microscopy and for their ability to synthesise stilbenes. These phytoalexins were strictly analysed at infection sites. In the susceptible Chasselas, P. viticola colonises, at 72h post-infection (hpi), all of the spongy mesophyll with functional haustoria and produces mainly the non toxic piceide. No necrotic zone was observed on Chasselas leaves. The ultrastructural response to downy mildew infection is different in each of the other three resistant grape cultivars. In Solaris, where leaf necrosis are rapidly induced, the infection is restricted to the upper part of the loose spongy mesophyll, and associated with a rapid cell wall disruption and the dispersion of cytoplasmic content along with the production of viniferins. In IRAC 2091, leaf necrosis are quite similar to those observed on Solaris but the infected plant cell, as well as the haustoria, show high electron dense cellular particles without any recognisable organelles, probably related to the effect of the toxic compound pterostilbene, which is synthesised in this grape cultivar. In M. rotundifolia leaf necrosis are much more scarce and smaller than in other cultivars, but pathogen and plant cells are both strongly affected, with concomitant expulsion of cytoplasmic materials through the stomata after P. viticola penetration. In this cultivar, the concentration of all identified stilbenes exceeds 1×10³ μmol mg(-1) FW. The critical role of stilbenes in the resistance of Vitis spp. is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Plant Physiol Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology