Author(s): Uchida H, Kurata Y, Hiratsuka H, Umemura T
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Abstract Itai-itai disease (IID) of humans is one of the most severe forms of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. Itai-itai disease occurs mainly in post-menopausal women and is characterized by osteoporosis with osteomalacia, renal tubular disorder, and renal anemia. Some researchers insist the major cause of IID is not Cd, but rather malnutrition, especially hypovitaminosis D. We administrated a low concentration of Cd chloride intravenously to ovariectomized female rats that were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet or a normal diet for fifty weeks. The vitamin D-deficient diet decreased serum concentration of vitamin D, but it did not affect the metabolism of the kidney or bone. Cadmium treatment alone induced a decrease in serum concentration of vitamin D, as well as renal dysfunction, renal anemia, and abnormal bone metabolism. Osteoporosis with osteomalacia, tubular nephropathy, fibrous osteodystrophy, and bone marrow hyperplasia occurred following Cd treatment. In rats treated with Cd and administered a vitamin D-deficient diet, the toxic effects of Cd on kidney, bone, and hematopoiesis were enhanced in comparison to rats treated with Cd and a normal diet. The present experiment demonstrated that hypovitaminosis D did not evoke morphologic features of IID in humans but did enhance Cd-induced toxicity in the rat model of this disease.
This article was published in Toxicol Pathol
and referenced in Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering