Author(s): Witeska M, Sarnowski P, ugowska K, Kowal E
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Abstract The effects of Cd and Cu on embryos and larvae of the ide Leuciscus idus were evaluated. The ide is an European cyprinid fish, natural populations of which tend to decrease. The ide is also used as a bioindicator organism to evaluate water quality. However, sensitivity of ide early developmental stages to heavy metal intoxication is not known. Fish were exposed to Cd or Cu (100 μg/L) during embryonic, larval or both developmental periods. Survival of the embryos, time of hatching, size and quality of newly hatched larvae were evaluated at the end of embryonic period. Correctly developed larvae from the control and Cd or Cu-exposed groups were transferred to clean water, Cd or Cu solutions (100 μg/L) immediately after hatching. Larval development was observed, and the larvae were photographed. Time of yolk sac resorption, onset of active feeding and swim bladder inflation were evaluated, and the measurements were done on body and swim bladder size. The results showed that exposure of embryos to Cd and Cu significantly reduced embryonic survival and increased frequency of body malformations and death in newly hatched larvae and delayed hatching. Exposure to Cd and Cu during larval period reduced larval survival, growth and delayed development (yolk utilization, beginning of active feeding and swim bladder inflation). Cadmium was more toxic to the ide embryos and larvae than copper. Exposures to metals during embryonic period alone caused adverse impact on larval performance even when larval development took place in clean water. However, exposure of embryos to Cu reduced toxic impact of metal on larvae in continuous Cu exposure compared to the non-preexposed fish, but no such an effect occurred in case of Cd exposure. The results show that even a short-term exposure to Cd or Cu during early development of ide may adversely affect recruitment of this species. Among the measured endpoints, quality of newly hatched larvae (frequency of body malformations and larvae dead immediately after hatching) and swim bladder size were the most sensitive to intoxication with both metals. Embryos were more sensitive to Cu intoxication than larvae, while in case of Cd, sensitivity of both stages was similar.
This article was published in Fish Physiol Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development