alexa The effects of surfactants on penetration across the skin*.
Chemistry

Chemistry

Modern Chemistry & Applications

Author(s): Walters KA, Bialik W, Brain KR

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Abstract Synopsis Many of the properties of surfactants can be related to their ability to concentrate at phase interfaces, leading to a reduction in interracial tension. In biological systems the effects of surfactants are complex, particularly their effect on cell and other membranes, and this can lead to alterations in permeability characteristics. This is of particular relevance when considering the stratum corneum which has long been recognized as the major barrier to skin permeation. The magnitude of skin barrier function alteration is dependent on surfactant structure, both the hydrophobic alkyl chain and the hydropnilic ethylene oxide chain demonstrating some structure-activity behaviour. In many biological systems, including skin, surfactants with a similar hydrophilic group will show maximum membrane activity if they possess a decyl or dodecyl alkyl chain. It is difficult to rationalise this phenomenon, given that such solution properties as partition coefficients and CMCs do not show maxima or minima at these chain lengths. It may be that the physical parameters and molecular dimensions of the decyl/dodecyl chain provide the optimal ability to intercalate with the lipid bilayer structure. There is little doubt that once the surfactant has intercalated with the lipid bilayers in the lamellar liquid crystals of the stratum corneum, fluidity in the hydrophobic regions is increased. Effectively, this leads to a looser, more permeable structure. The significance of data obtained using commercially available surfactants, however, can be questioned on the grounds of purity. The purpose of this review is to describe some of the methods used to evaluate the effects of surfactants on the skin barrier and to discuss recent attempts to predict surfactant action on the skin using various biological and physical techniques. Résumé La plupart des propriétés des surfactants dépend de leur facilitéà se concentrer aux interfaces, menant ainsi à la réduction de la tension interfaciale. Dans le cas d'un système biologique les effets des surfactants sont complexes, particulièrement leur action sur les cellules et les membranes et ceci mène à l'altération des caractéristiques de la perméabilité. Ce point est très pertinent pour le stratum corneum qui a été longtemps considéré comme la principale barrière à la pénétration cutanée. L'importance de l'altération de cette function barrière est en relation avec la structure du surfactant. L'importance de son altération est liée à la fois à la chaîne alkyle hydrophobe et à la chaîne d'oxyde d'éthylène hydrophile ayant une activité due à sa structure. Dans de nombreux systèmes biologiques, incluant la peau, les surfactants avec une chaîne hydrophile identique montreront une activité maximum sur les membranes si ils comprennent une chaîne alkyle décylique ou dodécylique. Il est difficile de démontrer d'une maniére rationnelle ce phénoméne étant donné que les coefficients de partage de telles solutions et les CMC ne permettent pas de déterminer des longueurs de chaines. II se peut que les paramétres physiques et les dimensions moléculaires des chaines décylique et dodécylique fournissent la capacitt optimale il s'intercaler dans la structure lipidique bicouche. II n'y a pas de doute qu'une fois que le surfactant s'est intercale dans cette bicouche liquide de cristaux lamellaires du stratum corneum, la fluiditt dam les regions hydrophobes est accrue. En effet cela mbne a une structure rellchte plus permtable. La valeur des rtsultats obtenus en utilisant des tensio actifs disponibles sur le march6 peut 6tre remise en question en fonction de leur pureté. Le but de cet article est de commenter quelques méthodes appliqutes pour ćvaluer les effets des surfactants sur la barriére cutante et de discuter différents essais récents pour prédire I'action du surfactant sur la peau en utilisant diverses techniques physiques et biologiques. This article was published in Int J Cosmet Sci and referenced in Modern Chemistry & Applications

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