Author(s): Mathias Lichterfeld, Xu G Yu
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LILRs represent a group of immunomodulatory molecules that regulate the functional properties of professional APCs and influence immune activation in a variety of disease contexts. Many members of the LILR family recognize peptide/MHC class I complexes as their physiological ligands, and increasing evidence suggests that such interactions are prominently influenced by polymorphisms in HLA class I alleles or sequence variations in the presented antigenic peptides. Emerging data show that LILRs are involved in multiple, different aspects of HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and may critically influence spontaneous HIV-1 disease progression. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the role of LILR during HIV-1 infection by focusing on the dynamic interplay between LILR and HLA class I molecules in determining HIV-1 disease progression, the effects of HIV-1 mutational escape on LILR-mediated immune recognition, the contribution of LILR to HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction, and the unique expression patterns of LILR on circulating myeloid DCs from elite controllers, a small subset of HIV-1-infected patients with natural control of HIV-1 replication. Obtaining a more complete understanding of LILR-mediated immune regulation during HIV-1 infection may ultimately allow for improved strategies to treat or prevent HIV-1-associated disease manifestations.
This article was published in Journal Leukocyte Biology
and referenced in Immunogenetics: Open Access