Author(s): Snider NT, Sikora MJ, Sridar C, Feuerstein TJ, Rae JM,
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Abstract Members of the cytochrome P450 (P450) family of drug-metabolizing enzymes are present in the human brain, and they may have important roles in the oxidation of endogenous substrates. The polymorphic CYP2D6 is one of the major brain P450 isoforms and has been implicated in neurodegeneration, psychosis, schizophrenia, and personality traits. The objective of this study was to determine whether the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) is a substrate for CYP2D6. Anandamide is the endogenous ligand to the cannabinoid receptor CB1, which is also activated by the main psychoactive component in marijuana. Signaling via the CB1 receptor alters sensory and motor function, cognition, and emotion. Recombinant CYP2D6 converted anandamide to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ethanolamide and 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid ethanolamides (EET-EAs) with low micromolar K(m) values. CYP2D6 further metabolized the epoxides of anandamide to form novel dioxygenated derivatives. Human brain microsomal and mitochondrial preparations metabolized anandamide to form hydroxylated and epoxygenated products, respectively. An inhibitory antibody against CYP2D6 significantly decreased the mitochondrial formation of the EET-EAs. To our knowledge, anandamide and its epoxides are the first eicosanoid-like molecules to be identified as CYP2D6 substrates. Our study suggests that anandamide may be a physiological substrate for brain mitochondrial CYP2D6, implicating this polymorphic enzyme as a potential component of the endocannabinoid system in the brain. This study also offers support to the hypothesis that neuropsychiatric phenotype differences among individuals with genetic variations in CYP2D6 could be ascribable to interactions of this enzyme with endogenous substrates.
This article was published in J Pharmacol Exp Ther
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics