Author(s): Griffiths S, Dunford RP, Coupland G, Laurie DA
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Abstract The CO (CONSTANS) gene of Arabidopsis has an important role in the regulation of flowering by photoperiod. CO is part of a gene family with 17 members that are subdivided into three classes, termed Group I to III here. All members of the family have a CCT (CO, CO-like, TOC1) domain near the carboxy terminus. Group I genes, which include CO, have two zinc finger B-boxes near the amino terminus. Group II genes have one B-box, and Group III genes have one B-box and a second diverged zinc finger. Analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) genomic sequence identified 16 genes (OsA-OsP) that were also divided into these three groups, showing that their evolution predates monocot/dicot divergence. Eight Group I genes (HvCO1-HvCO8) were isolated from barley (Hordeum vulgare), of which two (HvCO1 and HvCO2) were highly CO like. HvCO3 and its rice counterpart (OsB) had one B-box that was distantly related to Group II genes and was probably derived by internal deletion of a two B-box Group I gene. Sequence homology and comparative mapping showed that HvCO1 was the counterpart of OsA (Hd1), a major determinant of photoperiod sensitivity in rice. Major genes determining photoperiod response have been mapped in barley and wheat (Triticum aestivum), but none corresponded to CO-like genes. Thus, selection for variation in photoperiod response has affected different genes in rice and temperate cereals. The peptides of HvCO1, HvCO2 (barley), and Hd1 (rice) show significant structural differences from CO, particularly amino acid changes that are predicted to abolish B-box2 function, suggesting an evolutionary trend toward a one-B-box structure in the most CO-like cereal genes.
This article was published in Plant Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy