alexa The extra domain A of fibronectin activates Toll-like receptor 4.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Okamura Y, Watari M, Jerud ES, Young DW, Ishizaka ST,

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Abstract Cellular fibronectin, which contains an alternatively spliced exon encoding type III repeat extra domain A (EDA), is produced in response to tissue injury. Fragments of fibronectin have been implicated in physiological and pathological processes, especially tissue remodeling associated with inflammation. Because EDA-containing fibronectin fragments produce cellular responses similar to those provoked by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we examined the ability of recombinant EDA to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the signaling receptor stimulated by LPS. We found that recombinant EDA, but not other recombinant fibronectin domains, activates human TLR4 expressed in a cell type (HEK 293 cells) that normally lacks this Toll-like receptor. EDA stimulation of TLR4 was dependent upon co-expression of MD-2, a TLR4 accessory protein. Unlike LPS, the activity of EDA was heat-sensitive and persisted in the presence of the LPS-binding antibiotic polymyxin B and a potent LPS antagonist, E5564, which completely suppressed LPS activation of TLR4. These observations provided a mechanism by which EDA-containing fibronectin fragments promote expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response. This article was published in J Biol Chem and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

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