Author(s): R Sullivan
That a well-developed and hierarchical medical profession existed in Pharaonic Egypt is without doubt. What is a matter of contention is the existence of a recognizable surgical profession, or even of the practice of surgery by medically qualified personnel. Palaeorchaeological specimens that demonstrate some form of surgical procedure are rare. Medical papyri and the treatises of the historians of antiquity provide a far more reliable source of information on surgical practice. They have indicated possible titles for surgeons, and the types of instruments used.