Author(s): Florio G, Petraroli A, Patella V, Triggiani M, Marone G
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism whereby HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 from four different isolates obtained in three different countries induces proinflammatory mediator release from normal human basophils. METHODS: Histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) release into the supernatant was measured in gp120-stimulated peripheral blood basophils from HIV-1 and HIV-2 negative subjects. RESULTS: The HIV glycoprotein was a potent stimulus for release of these mediators in basophils purified from donors negative for HIV-1 and HIV-2. There was also a correlation (r = 0.58; P < 0.01) between the maximum IL-4 release from basophils induced by gp120 and by anti-IgE. Basophils from which IgE had been dissociated by brief exposure to lactic acid no longer released histamine in response to gp120 and anti-IgE. Anti-IgE specifically desensitized basophils to a subsequent challenge with anti-IgE and gp120. Human monoclonal IgM carrying the VH3 domain, but not that carrying the VH6 domain, inhibited gp120-induced secretion of histamine from basophils in a concentration-dependent manner. Synthetic peptides identical to regions distant from the N- and C-termini of gp120MN inhibited its activating capacity. CONCLUSIONS: gp120 acts as a viral superantigen interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE to induce the release of preformed and de novo synthesized mediators from human cells carrying the Fc fragment Fc epsilonRI receptor.
This article was published in AIDS
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals