alexa The impact of smoking on complications after operatively treated ankle fractures--a follow-up study of 906 patients.


Journal of Arthritis

Author(s): Nsell H, Ottosson C, Trnqvist H, Lind J, Ponzer S, Nsell H, Ottosson C, Trnqvist H, Lind J, Ponzer S, Nsell H, Ottosson C, Trnqvist H, Lind J, Ponzer S

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Abstract OBJECTIVES: This study on patients with operatively treated ankle fractures aimed to investigate the impact of smoking on postoperative complications and especially deep wound infections. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospective follow-up. SETTING: University-associated teaching hospital with advanced trauma care. PATIENTS: A consecutive series of patients (n = 906) operatively treated for an acute ankle fracture during a 3-year period was identified. For the analysis, the patients were categorized as nonsmokers (n = 721) and smokers (n = 185). Data were collected from the department database and completed with a review of the patients' medical charts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative complications. RESULTS: Follow-up data at 6 weeks were available for 98.2\% of the patients. Postoperative complications of any kind (30.1\% versus 20.3\%, P = 0.005) as well as deep wound infections (4.9\% versus 0.8\%, P < 0.001) were more common among smokers than nonsmokers. Multivariable analyses showed that smokers had six times higher odds of developing a deep infection compared with nonsmokers. A more complicated fracture, associated diabetes mellitus, and unsatisfactory operative fracture reduction also enhanced the risk of postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that cigarette smoking increases the risk of postoperative complications in patients operatively treated for an ankle fracture. Smoking is a considerable risk factor. Therefore, physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals should strive to support patients to stop smoking while still under acute treatment. This article was published in J Orthop Trauma and referenced in Journal of Arthritis

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