alexa The impact of the 21st century on rugby injuries.
Medicine

Medicine

Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

Author(s): Silver JR

Abstract Share this page

Abstract STUDY DESIGN: This is a review article concerning rugby injuries resulting in tetraplegia between the years of 1965 and 2000. It is based on a review of worldwide literature. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to evaluate research that has taken place in the last 10 years. SETTING: The author first became interested in this problem in 1965 when there were few papers on the subject. Understanding of these injuries has changed decade by decade and the number of spinal injuries has increased dramatically. For the first three decades the author was actively engaged in gathering material particularly at the National Spinal Injuries Centre. During the last 10 years there has been a greater understanding in the mechanism of these injuries. METHODS: The following subjects were reviewed in the literature: (1). mechanism of injury; (2). the diameter of the spinal canal; (3). arthritis; (4). treatment; (5). fitness and (6). medico-legal aspects. RESULTS: These injuries are no longer regarded as an Act of God or bad luck but mechanisms of injury have been clearly defined. CONCLUSION: To prevent these injuries occurring there is a need for: (1). better statistics; (2). enforcement of the laws; (3). improved standards of refereeing; (4). higher standards of fitness and training in particular to de-power the set scrum; (5). study of the cervical spine to look for abnormalities which would predispose the player to tetraplegia; (6). the use of MRI and CT scans to monitor the spinal cord anatomy; (7). the importance of pathology and the status of the cervical spine; (8). the awareness of the dangers to the cord of congenital and acquired abnormalities that could prejudice spinal cord function and (9). the awareness of the necessity for comprehensive insurance. This article was published in Spinal Cord and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

  • Eva E Avila
    Interaction of the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis with human neutrophil extracellular traps
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Amina Dahmani
    TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-β PROGRAMS CENTRAL-MEMORY DIFFERENTIATION IN EX-VIVO STIMULATED HUMAN T CELLS BY MODULATING ID3 EXPRESSION
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Eltayeb Tayrab
    Human mercury exposure associated with artisanal gold miners in Sudan
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Peter S. Nyasulu
    Prevalence and risk factors associated with acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Diepsloot settlement, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Moorkath Nandakumaran
    Hyperglycemia alters maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese, chromium and vanadium in diabetic model human placental lobule in vitro : Implications for diabetes mellitu
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Carolina Alonso-González
    Melatonin sensitizes human breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Jim Polarine
    Case studies of human fl ora and spore contamination in clean rooms
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Rune Thorbjørn Nordvang
    A Rational Approach to Identification of Wild Type Trans-sialidases for the Production of Human Milk Oligosaccharides
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Xueli Li
    Glycomics Profile Analysis by MALDI TOF/MS in Human CSF
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Julian M Menter
    Histology of Normal Human Skin
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Monray Edward Williams
    Molecular validation of putative antimicrobial peptides for improved Human Immunodeficiency Virus diagnostics via HIV protein p24
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Rashid Ramazanzadeh
    Effect of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin alone or in combination with N-acetylcysteine on biofilm-producing Enterococcus faecalis: Contaminated root canals of extracted human teeth
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Geeta Shroff
    Improved Epilepsy and Speech Outcomes with Human Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Gloria Cuenca-Bescós
    Biodiversity, impact, vulnerability and adaptation in human evolution
    PPT Version | PDF Version

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords