Author(s): Kikuchi T, Okazaki M, Toyota K, Motobayashi T, Kato M
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Abstract Field monitoring was practiced from 2001 to 2003 to evaluate the input (irrigation, atmospheric deposition, and fertilizer application) and the output (uptake and accumulation into the above-ground biomass of rice plants and leaching) of cadmium (Cd) in a contaminated paddy field in Tokyo. The cadmium concentrations of irrigated water, open-bulk precipitation, soil solution (leaching water), rice plants collected at the harvesting stage and the chemical fertilizer and the cow manure compost applied were determined. The Cd flux of each factor was calculated by multiplying the Cd concentration by the volume or mass of the media. The annual input-output balance of Cd in the paddy field in 2001 and 2002 was estimated to be -5.44 [corrected] g ha(-1) and -2.01 [corrected] g ha(-1), respectively, indicating the loss of Cd from the paddy field, although the losses accounted for only 0.24\% [corrected] and 0.089\% [corrected] of the total amount of Cd in the ploughed layer soil in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Among the factors involved, the input from fertilizers (including manure compost) and the output due to the uptake by rice plants played a major role in the balance. The former largely depended on the types and amounts of fertilizers applied, and the latter on the water management practices in the paddy field, such as flooding and drainage of the surface water.
This article was published in Chemosphere
and referenced in Agrotechnology