Author(s): Albertazzi P, Purdie DW
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Abstract The estrogens profoundly influence the growth, differentiation and function of the organs of the reproductive system such as the breast, uterus and ovary, but also have an effect on the non-reproductive tissues of the skeletal, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Formerly, only one estrogen receptor (ER) was thought to mediate all functions. Now termed ER alpha, this agent was known to reside in the nucleus, to be activated by ligand and to direct the expression of target genes. A second oestrogen receptor (ER beta) has been identified, and estrogen influence has been further clarified through demonstration of actions which operate via membrane receptors and non-genomic pathways. This review summarizes our growing understanding of receptor structure, mechanism of action and tissue distribution, together with the implication of these data for the development and clinical delivery of estrogen replacement regimens.
This article was published in Climacteric
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism