alexa The many isoforms of human adenylate kinases.
Medicine

Medicine

Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

Author(s): Panayiotou C, Solaroli N, Karlsson A

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Abstract Adenine nucleotides are involved in a variety of cellular metabolic processes, including nucleic acid synthesis and repair, formation of coenzymes, energy transfer, cell and ciliary motility, hormone secretion, gene expression regulation and ion-channel control. Adenylate kinases are abundant phosphotransferases that catalyze the interconversion of adenine nucleotides and thus regulate the adenine nucleotide ratios in different intracellular compartments. Nine different adenylate kinase isoenzymes have been identified and characterized so far in human tissues, named AK1 to AK9 according to their order of discovery. Adenylate kinases differ in molecular weight, tissue distribution, subcellular localization, substrate and phosphate donor specificity and kinetic properties. The preferred substrate and phosphate donor of all adenylate kinases are AMP and ATP respectively, but some members of the family can phosphorylate other substrates and use other phosphate donors. In addition to their nucleoside monophosphate kinase activity, adenylate kinases were found to possess nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity as they are able to phosphorylate both ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates to their corresponding triphosphates. Nucleoside analogues are structural analogues of natural nucleosides, used in the treatment of cancer and viral infections. They are inactive prodrugs that are dependent on intracellular phosphorylation to their pharmacologically active triphosphate form. Novel data presented in this review confirm the role of adenylate kinases in the activation of deoxyadenosine and deoxycytidine nucleoside analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This article was published in Int J Biochem Cell Biol and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research

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