Author(s): Insoft M, King GJ, Keeling SD
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Abstract This study examines acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to learn whether bone turnover dynamics can be monitored in human subjects during orthodontic tooth movement. Three female subjects were observed longitudinally to assess tooth movement, plaque, and inflammation. For each subject, one randomly selected premolar served as the control and was not treated, and another was moved buccally with 100 gm of force. The GCF was collected weekly and assayed for phosphatases. Alkaline phosphatase peaked between the first and third weeks, followed by an increase in acid phosphatase between the third and sixth weeks. After the first week, tooth movement averaged 0.9 mm. Additional 0.9 mm of movement occurred during the next 3 weeks, followed by 1.4 mm during weeks 4 to 6. Thirty additional patients, randomly divided into headgear/biteplate, bionator, and control groups, were also sampled cross-sectionally at the maxillary first molars. The GCF phosphatase activities were assessed as functions of location on the tooth, treatment modality, duration of treatment, gingival inflammation, and plaque accumulation. The plaque index did not show a relationship to either acid or alkaline phosphatase activity on the mesial or distal in the treated groups. However, alkaline phosphatase increased with inflammation on the distal in treated groups and acid phosphatase was consistently higher on the mesial than on the distal in the treatment groups. Alternating peaks of acid and alkaline phosphatase were found in the GCF of treated teeth as functions of treatment duration. The sequence of these changes is similar to that reported for alveolar bone turnover in a rodent orthodontic tooth movement model. We conclude that phosphatase activities in GCF may be a useful means for monitoring tissue responses to orthodontic treatment.
This article was published in Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop
and referenced in Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis