Author(s): Swartz HM, Clarkson RB
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Abstract The measurement of pO2 in vivo using EPR has some features which have already led to very useful applications and this approach is likely to have increasingly wide and effective use. It is based on the effect of oxygen on EPR spectra which provides a sensitive and accurate means to measure pO2 quantitatively. The development of oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic materials which are very stable, combined with instrumental developments, has been crucial to the in vivo applications of this technique. The physical basis and biological applications of in vivo EPR oximetry are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the use of EPR spectroscopy at 1 GHz using particulate paramagnetic materials for the repetitive and non-invasive measurement of pO2 in tissues. In vivo EPR has already produced some very useful results which have contributed significantly to solving important biological problems. The characteristics of EPR oximetry which appear to be especially useful are often complementary to existing techniques for measuring oxygen in tissues. These characteristics include the capability of making repeated measurements from the same site, high sensitivity to low levels of oxygen, and non-invasive options. The existing techniques are especially useful for studies in small animals, where the depth of measurements is not an overriding issue. In larger animals and potentially in human subjects, non-invasive techniques seem to be immediately applicable to study phenomena very near the surface (within 10 mm) while invasive techniques have some very promising uses. The clinical uses of EPR oximetry which seem especially promising and likely to be undertaken in the near future are long-term monitoring of the status and response to treatment of peripheral vascular disease and optimizing cancer therapy by enabling it to be modified on the basis of the pO2 measured in the tumour.
This article was published in Phys Med Biol
and referenced in Journal of Cell Science & Therapy