Author(s): Alfonzo JD, Thiemann O, Simpson L
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Abstract Recent advances in in vitrosystems and identification of putative enzymatic activities have led to the acceptance of a modified 'enzyme cascade' model for U insertion/deletion RNA editing in kinetoplastid mitochondria. Models involving the transfer of uridines (Us) from the 3'-end of gRNA to the editing site appear to be untenable. Two types of in vitrosystems have been reported: (i) a gRNA-independent U insertion activity that is dependent on the secondary structure of the mRNA; (ii) a gRNA-dependent U insertion activity that requires addition of a gRNA that can form an anchor duplex with the pre-edited mRNA and which contains guiding A and G nucleotides to base pair with the added Us. In the case of the gRNA-mediated reaction, the precise site of cleavage is at the end of the gRNA-mRNA anchor duplex, as predicted by the original model. The model has been modified to include the addition of multiple Us to the 3'-end of the 5'-cleavage fragment, followed by the formation of base pairs with the guiding nucleotides and trimming back of the single-stranded oligo(U) 3'-overhang. The two fragments, which are held together by the gRNA 'splint', are then ligated. Circumstantial in vitroevidence for involvement of an RNA ligase and an endoribonuclease, which are components of a 20S complex, was obtained. Efforts are underway in several laboratories to isolate and characterize specific components of the editing machinery.
This article was published in Nucleic Acids Res
and referenced in Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access