alexa The mechanisms of death of an erythroleukemic cell line by p53: involvement of the microtubule and mitochondria.


Journal of Physical Chemistry & Biophysics

Author(s): Kato MV

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Abstract A murine erythroleukemic cell line (1-2-3) which expresses only the temperature-sensitive mutant p53 gene (Ala-to-Val substitution at codon 135) was established. These cells showed typical characteristics of apoptosis, when they were cultured at 32 degrees C. In this process, p53 recovered the wild-type p53 function and the expression of the p21 (waf1/cip1/sdi1), cyclin G1 and gadd45 genes was increased. However, no significant changes were detected in the expression of the mdm2, bcl-2, bax, fas and fasl genes, suggesting the existence of other genes associated with apoptosis. Genes up-regulated by p53 were screened by the mRNA differential display method. One of the up-regulated genes was identified as the elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) gene. EF-1 alpha is also a microtubule-severing protein. Upon the temperature-shift, the cells developed the morphology and the localization of alpha-tubulin similar to those of the cells treated with vincristine, a drug that affects microtubules. The microtubule-severing associated with up-regulation of EF-1 alpha by p53 may be a cause of the cell death. On the other hand, the function of cyclin G1 is not so clear despite the fact that 1-2-3 cells showed a significant increase of the cyclin G1 gene during the early stage of apoptosis. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify cyclin G1-associated proteins. One is a cytochrome c (Cyt c) oxidase subunit II (COXII). Cyclin G1 and COXII were co-immunoprecipitated from an extract of human osteosarcoma cell line that expressed high levels of cyclin G1. COX activity was also increased by temperature-shift in this cell line. The pattern of changes in COX activity was closely reflected by the expression of the cyclin G1 gene. Cyclin G1 and COXII associate physically with each other in vivo and that activation of COXII by binding to cyclin G1 upregulated by p53 may be associated with apoptosis. These two new pathways, p53-EF-1 alpha-microtubule-severing (-distortion of cytoskeleton) and p53-cyclin G1-COXII (-CytC, ATP-caspase-3 activation), may cooperate to induce apoptosis in this cell line. This article was published in Leuk Lymphoma and referenced in Journal of Physical Chemistry & Biophysics

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