Author(s): Lozano L, LaraLemus R, Zenteno E, AlvaradoVsquez N, Lozano L, LaraLemus R, Zenteno E, AlvaradoVsquez N
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Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer disease (AD); however, how DM favors evolution of AD is still insufficiently understood. Hyperglycemia in DM is associated to an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as damage of hippocampal cells, reflected by changes in morphological and mitochondrial functionality. Similar mitochondrial damage has been observed when amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulates in the brain of AD patients. In DM, the excess of glucose in the brain induces higher activity of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), it synthesizes UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which is used by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) to catalyze O-GlcNAcylation of numerous proteins. Although O-GlcNAcylation plays an important role in maintaining structure and cellular functionality, chronic activity of this pathway has been associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia-induced glucose toxicity. Three different forms of OGT are known: nucleocytoplasmic (ncOGT), short (sOGT), and mitochondrial (mOGT). Previous reports showed that overexpression of ncOGT is not toxic to the cell; in contrast, overexpression of mOGT is associated with cellular apoptosis. In this work, we suggest that hyperglycemia in the diabetic patient could induce greater expression and activity of mOGT, modifying the structure and functionality of mitochondria in hippocampal cells, accelerating neuronal damage, and favoring the start of AD. In consequence, mOGT activity could be a key point for AD development in patients with DM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Exp Gerontol
and referenced in Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry