Author(s): Campbell DB, Lavielle R, Nathan C
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Abstract Gliclazide is a sulphonylurea drug with an intermediate half-life of around 11 hours. It is extensively metabolised, and renal clearance accounts for only 4\% of total drug clearance. The molecule contains an azabicyclo-octyl group which confers special properties on the basic sulphonylurea moiety. Gliclazide stimulates insulin secretion through the beta cell sulphonylurea receptor, and possibly through a direct effect on intracellular calcium transport. It specifically improves the abnormal first phase insulin release in type 2 diabetes, and also has an effect on the second phase. This pattern of insulin release is thought to explain the lower incidence of hypoglycaemic episodes and weight gain compared with some other sulphonylureas. There is also a reduction in hepatic glucose production and improvement in glucose clearance, without changes in insulin receptors. This suggests a possible post-receptor effect on insulin action, perhaps by stimulation of hepatic fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase and muscle glycogen synthase. Gliclazide reduces platelet adhesion, aggregation and hyperactivity and increases fibrinolysis. These actions, thought to be independent of its hypoglycaemic activity, may make gliclazide useful in halting the progression of diabetic microangiopathy.
This article was published in Diabetes Res Clin Pract
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta