Author(s): Lacombe C, Mayeux P, Lacombe C, Mayeux P, Lacombe C, Mayeux P, Lacombe C, Mayeux P
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Abstract Erythropoietin (Epo) controls the proliferation, differentiation and survival of the erythroid progenitors. Epo exerts its effects by binding to a cell surface receptor. The Epo receptor includes a p66 chain, which is dimerized upon Epo activation, and two accessory proteins, which have been defined by cross-linking. Epo binding induces stimulation of the Jak2 tyrosine kinase. Jak2 activation leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including the Epo receptor itself. Different intracellular pathways are activated: Ras/MAP kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and STAT transcription factors. However, the exact mechanisms by which the proliferation and/or differentiation of erythroid cells are regulated after Epo stimulation are not known. Target disruption of both Epo and Epo receptors showed that Epo is not involved in the commitment of the erythroid lineage; it seems to act mainly as a survival factor. Epo is synthesized largely by the kidney and the liver, and sequences required for tissue-specific expression have been localized in the Epo gene. A 3' enhancer is responsible for hypoxia-inducible Epo gene expression. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 (HIF-1) protein binds to this enhancer. In addition to anaemia of renal failure, the indication for treatment with epoetin has been extended to the anaemia of chronic diseases.
This article was published in Nephrol Dial Transplant
and referenced in Journal of Integrative Oncology