Author(s): Shahpiri A, Svensson B, Finnie C
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Abstract The NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR)/thioredoxin (Trx) system catalyzes disulfide bond reduction in the cytoplasm and mitochondrion. Trx h is suggested to play an important role in seed development, germination, and seedling growth. Plants have multiple isoforms of Trx h and NTR; however, little is known about the roles of the individual isoforms. Trx h isoforms from barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds (HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2) were characterized previously. In this study, two NTR isoforms (HvNTR1 and HvNTR2) were identified, enabling comparison of gene expression, protein appearance, and interaction between individual NTR and Trx h isoforms in barley embryo and aleurone layers. Although mRNA encoding both Trx h isoforms is present in embryo and aleurone layers, the corresponding proteins differed in spatiotemporal appearance. HvNTR2, but not HvNTR1, gene expression seems to be regulated by gibberellic acid. Recombinant HvNTR1 and HvNTR2 exhibited virtually the same affinity toward HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2, whereas HvNTR2 has slightly higher catalytic activity than HvNTR1 with both Trx h isoforms, and HvNTR1 has slightly higher catalytic activity toward HvTrxh1 than HvTrxh2. Notably, both NTRs reduced Trx h at the acidic conditions residing in the starchy endosperm during germination. Interspecies reactions between the barley proteins and Escherichia coli Trx or Arabidopsis thaliana NTR, respectively, occurred with 20- to 90-fold weaker affinity. This first investigation of regulation and interactions between members of the NTR/Trx system in barley seed tissues suggests that different isoforms are differentially regulated but may have overlapping roles, with HvNTR2 and HvTrxh1 being the predominant isoforms in the aleurone layer.
This article was published in Plant Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology