Author(s): Ventura RE, Balcer LJ, Galetta SL
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Abstract SUMMARY: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Concussion, a form of mild TBI, might be associated with long-term neurological symptoms. The effects of TBI and concussion are not restricted to cognition and balance. TBI can also affect multiple aspects of vision; mild TBI frequently leads to disruptions in visual functioning, while moderate or severe TBI often causes structural lesions. In patients with mild TBI, there might be abnormalities in saccades, pursuit, convergence, accommodation, and vestibulo-ocular reflex. Moderate and severe TBI might additionally lead to ocular motor palsies, optic neuropathies, and orbital pathologies. Vision-based testing is vital in the management of all forms of TBI and provides a sensitive approach for sideline or post-injury concussion screening. One sideline test, the King-Devick test, uses rapid number naming and has been tested in multiple athlete cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Lancet Neurol
and referenced in International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation