Author(s): NasrEsfahani MM, Johnson MH
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Abstract The increase in production of reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 at the G2/M phase of the second cell cycle may be related to the in vitro block to development of mouse 2-cell embryos. The occurrence of the H2O2 rise is independent of the activation of the embryonic genome and of passage through the S, G2 and M phases of the first cell cycle and G1 and M phases of the second cell cycle, but does require the activation of the unfertilized oocyte. The H2O2 is produced via dismutation of superoxide by the enzyme superoxide dismutase. Production of superoxide via mitochondrial, NADPH-oxidase and xanthine/xanthine oxidase systems has been investigated. The evidence suggests that superoxide, and thereby H2O2, is produced by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, but an involvement of the other superoxide generating systems has not been excluded. The relation between H2O2 and development in vitro is discussed.
This article was published in Development
and referenced in Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders: Current Research